Attachment theory, started by John Bowlby and Mary Ainesworth, studied the attachments of mother and child which had a profound effect on the study of how humans attach to one another. The term bond, often can be interchanged with attachment, refers to the emotional connection of the mother to her infant . Bowlby focused on the mother child relationship and stressed the importance of having a warm, loving, stable relationship with the primary caregiver during infancy. The relationship between the primary caregiver and the infant is the most important tenet in attachment theory. Another important tenet discussed by Bowlby furthered this idea by discovering “if there is no possibility for such an affectionate relationship in infancy and childhood, persons may be crippled for life, may never ever be able to develop emotional relationships, and may develop all sorts of behavioral and mental problems” . Bowlby believed that children enter the world preprogramed to form attachments with others. Attaching to care givers is a survival skill. Infants have a way to communicate, which is either crying or smiling in early infancy. More often than not the infant is seeking comfort and connectedness with their caregiver.
Attunement is an important aspect of the developing infant and mother. Attunement means being responsive to one another. Attunement and attachment are related in that, caregivers who are available and attuned to their child, or responsive to their child’s needs beginning in infancy, establish a sense of security within that child. Attunement is an important aspect of the infant and mother relationship. Attunement means being responsive to one another…but how else can we look at it…. How does my child feel? Is my child happy or sad? Is she hungry or wet? By having their needs recognized and met the child learns that their caregiver is dependable, which establishes a sense of security in that child. “As children gradually gain knowledge about the world and learn skills to cope with it, they can increasingly rely on themselves and thus create a gradually increasing basis for independent security” 
 Ainsworth, M., & Bowlby, J. (1989). An Ethological Approach To Personality Development. American Psychologist, 333-341.
 Van der Horst, F., & Van der Veer, R. (2010). The Ontogeny Of An Idea: John Bowlby And Contemporaries On Mother–child Separation. History of Psychology, 1, 25-45.
 Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Clark, R. (2003). Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(4), 495-517. doi:10.1353/mpq.2003.0020